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SAKAI Makoto

SAKAI Makoto

Bunkyo University (Japan)

Associate Professor

Department of Media and Communications
Bunkyo University (Japan)

Background

Makoto Sakai was born in 1977 and educated in Japan, received his Ph.D. (Media and Governance) from the Keio University. He is author of five books (four books are sole author). And he worked as a freelance journalist and has written articles for magazines and newspapers in Japan.

Achievements
  1. Sakai M, Writing Method to Promote Media Literacy (written in Japanese) Tokyo: Sayusha 2019:1-240 ISBN:978-4-86528-220-7
  2. Sakai M, Shuichi Yoshida: Critique of Contemporary Japanese Literature (written in Japanese) Tokyo: Sayusha 2018: 1-336 ISBN:978-4865282108
  3. Azuma H, Iida T, Iida Y, Ikeda K, Endo T, Ogiue C, Kato N, Kayano T, Saijo T, Sakai M, Jimbo T, Takeda T, Tsuda D, Hirose H, Mikami Y, Miyadai S, Murakami K. The relationship between IT and the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake that caused the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. Tokyo:Impress Japan 2011: 184-209 ISBN:978-4-8443-3114-8
  4. Sakai M, Last national director Hayao Miyazaki. Tokyo: Bungeishunju 2008: 1-184 ISBN:978-4-16-660661-0
  5. Sakai M, Flat adult -Japanese sense of values after 1989. Tokyo: Bungeishunju 2007: 1-192 ISBN:978-4-16-660611-5
Contact

Please contact JSSJMC.

About the theme of this special issue:
Public Opinion and Media Discourse in the Era of Fake News and Filter Bubbles

Published: 31 May 2019

The development of media architecture has enhanced the ease of information transmission. On the other hand, it has also given rise to some risks, such as unforeseen opportunities to access restricted information and sideline people who have different opinions. Eli Pariser, a famous internet activist, named this feature of the contemporary information environment the “filter bubble,” and he thought it problematic that people are surrounded by filters for viewing the information they want to see according to their interests. In the online discourse surrounding the concept of the filter bubble, the media has tended to manipulate “Popular Sentiments” to please the majority and secure a higher viewership and advertisement revenue, versus showcasing “Public Opinion” which is required to understand complex problems.

The origin of “fake news” dates back to the beginning of human civilization; and people have been deceived by rumors even as they have enjoyed spreading them, ever since. It is no different today, even in the contemporary information-rich society. In recent years, it is not only fake news but also fake accounts belonging to non-existent people, that are being used as undercover political and economic marketing tools online. Fake information such as fabricated GPS is also being used to camouflage personal details. The information that we encounter on a daily basis is being personalized, based on the history of one’s interests and web traffic. Not only has mass media slowly lost the battle to social media and new media in terms of audience interest and overall convenience, they are now struggling with monetization. As a result, the media’s capacity for nurturing transparency and shaping public opinion—which is based on truth and a clear sense of right and wrong—has been compromised.

What can be done to shape public opinion and media discourse; to improve the virtual information environment; and build a “new media environment” rooted in transparency and the “autonomy of information”? How do researchers majoring in media studies deal with the vanishing boundary between what is true and what is false, in a world of filter bubbles and fake news? What kinds of problem should they be aware of, and what research topics should they choose?

This second issue opens with Le Thu Mach and Chris Nash’s paper, titled Social Media Versus Traditional Vietnamese Journalism and Social Power Structures. This paper juxtaposes social media and journalism in Vietnam’s political and cultural contexts, and examines them from six different perspectives: function, content, the concept of freedom, content generators, legal frameworks, and cost. They analyze the core features of social media in Vietnam, and how it has created a space for public criticism and activism, in order to challenge the government.

This issue also focuses on Nancy Snow’s paper titled NHK, Abe and the World: Japan’s Pressing Needs on the Path to 2020. Snow explores the press and political environment of contemporary Japan, specifically NHK’s role as a news network that enables the needs and whims of the government. The author suggests that NHK expand its database of news sources for greater transparency, especially as it comes under increased scrutiny in the lead-up to the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo.

Yuan Meng and Sae Kyung Yu analyze China’s cultural proximities to Japanese animation in a paper titled Uses and Satisfaction Afforded by Japanese Animation to Chinese Audiences. Meng and Yu’s empirical research revealed various cultural proximities between China and Japan, including fondness for Japan, fondness for Japanese lifestyle and values.

Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s work, Hitoshi Yamaguchi’s contribution to political sociology titled Public Opinion That Cannot be “Constructed,” analyzes the concept of public opinion from a constructionist perspective. Using the media coverage of Japan’s 48th House of Representatives election—which was held in 2017—and the online reactions to it as a case study, Yamaguchi examines the idea that public opinion is constructed by public opinion polls and reports.

Hui Jiang conducted qualitative research for a paper titled A Study of the Information Behavior of Chinese Youth, Focusing on Relevance of Media Access and Status Quo Evaluation. This paper examines the status of media use among China’s youth and the results of the “Lifestyle-value Test” which is a questionnaire survey that was conducted by several universities in 2012, in seven regions of mainland China. The author examines two aspects of the status quo evaluation: the evaluation of individuals, and the evaluation of countries and governments.

Song Chen focuses on the territorial dispute between Japan and China over the Senkaku・Diaoyu islands in When Did Public Opinion on the Senkaku/Diaoyu Island Issue Begin Forming in China? The author uses empirical analysis, a literature review, and theories of political communication to trace how public opinion of the Senkaku・Diaoyu Islands issue in Chinese society took shape.

In the second issue, the editorial board looked for research papers on “public opinion” and “media discourse” regarding the new media environment, with reference to the Asian region. Our editorial board welcomes original work from scholars both within and outside Japan. For details on submission procedures for the Asian Journal of Journalism and Media Studies (ISSN2189-8286), please consult The Japan Society for Studies in Journalism and Mass Communication’s web site (see link below).

http://www.jmscom.org/en/Call_for_papers_Mar_2018.pdf

Article

May, 2019

Article

LE THU MACH

LE THU MACH

Monash University (Australia)

Researcher

Institute of Information
Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Vietnam.

Background

Has been a PhD Candidate (Journalism) at Monash University, Australia (2014-2019), a teacher of Journalism and Communication in Vietnam since 2003, a visiting scholar of journalism to Ohio University in the Study of the United States Institutes program in 2011.

Achievements
  1. MACH, L. T. 2019. Vietnamese journalism In: MERSKIN, D. L. (ed.) The SAGE International Encyclopedia of Mass Media and Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. (Upcoming)
Contact

Please contact JSSJMC

NASH Chris

NASH Chris

Monash University (Australia)

Professor

Faculty of Arts
Monash University (Australia)

Background

He was Professor of Journalism at Monash University 2008–2017, and Director of the Australian Centre for Independent Journalism at the University of Technology, Sydney 1998–2008.

Achievements

Chris Nash is the author of What is Journalism? The art and politics of a rupture (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016). Current research includes an exploration in film and book forms of the life and family relations of Henry Lampard (1849–1929), an Aboriginal man who lived in early colonial South Australia, and a book on the character and expression of the research question in journalism.

Contact

Please contact JSSJMC.

SOCIAL MEDIA VS. TRADITIONAL VIETNAMESE JOURNALISM

Abstract

This paper analyzes the core essences of social media in Vietnam in the era of Facebook prominence, from 2013 to the establishment of the Cyber Security Law in June 2018. With the growth of social media, unprecedented opposition forces have emerged on social media and challenged the political structures of the single-party country. This paper juxtaposes social media and journalism in Vietnamese political and cultural contexts. First, it indicates a sharp contrast between social media and journalism in six perspectives: function, content, the concept of freedom, content generators, legal framework, and cost. Second, it discusses the differences between traditional Vietnamese social power structures and social media, focusing on the characteristics of religions in Vietnam, the Power Distance Index, and the theories of high and low-context communication. The paper concludes that the essences of social media undermine the existent structures of journalism and social power by creating a space for public criticism and activism to challenge the government. Many opposition groups have been formed and institutionalized on social media, resulting in pluralism in Vietnamese politics and society. The analysis of Tôi và sứ quán (Embassies and Me) Facebook Page provides examples to clarify the differences between social media, and journalism and social power structures in Vietnam, as well as the institutionalization of the opposition groups on Facebook.

Keywords: Vietnam, social media, Facebook, state-owned journalism, Tôi và sứ quán

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ajjms/2/0/2_2.0_1/_article/-char/ja

Article

Nancy Snow

Nancy Snow

Kyoto University of Foreign Studies (Japan)

Pax Mundi Professor of Public Diplomacy

Faculty of Global Engagement

Background

Worked as a Presidential Management Fellow in Public Diplomacy at the U.S. State Department and United States Information Agency. Earned a Ph.D. in International Relations from the School of International Service, The American University, Washington, D.C. Graduated with highest honors (summa cum laude) with B.A. degree in Political Science from Clemson University in South Carolina (USA). Two-time Fulbright scholarship recipient (Germany, Japan), Abe Fellow and Visiting Research Professor at Keio University in Japan, Fulbright Professor at Sophia University in Tokyo. Visiting Professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China and 2020 Walt Disney Chair in Global Media at Schwarzman College, Tsinghua.

Achievements
  1. The SAGE Handbook of Propaganda, co-editor with Paul R. Baines and Nicholas J. O’Shaughnessy. (Sage, 2020)
  2. Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. Second edition. Co-edited with Nicholas J. Cull. (Routledge, 2020)
  3. Branding Japan in the World: A Dialogue and Diplomacy Struggle (Japanese language)
    Bunshindo Shoten (2019) translation by Midori Kaneko
  4. Japan’s Information War (CreateSpace, 2016)
  5. Routledge Handbook of Critical Public Relations, co-editor with Jacquie L’Etang, David McKie, and Jordi Xifra. (New York and London: Routledge, 2015.)
  6. Propaganda. In The International Encyclopedia of Journalism Studies, Tim P. Vos and Folker Hanusch (General Editors), Dimitra Dimitrakopoulou, Margaretha Geertsema-Sligh and Annika Sehl (Associate Editors). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2019.
  7. Public Diplomacy. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies, Renée Marlin-Bennett, Editor-in-chief, 2019. Oxford, England, 2019.
  8. Propaganda and American Democracy, editor. LSU Press, 2014.

NHK, Abe and the World:
Japan’s Pressing Needs in the Path to 2020

Abstract

Japan’s hosting of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Summer Paralympics is bringing the attention of global media and the world more than the country has experienced since the economic bubble years of the last century. NHK, Japan’s quasi-official broadcaster, is ratcheting up its world service in advance of this international spotlight, which is consequently bringing more attention to the country’s low press freedom ranking, last among the Group of Seven industrialized nations, and 67 among 180 nations and regions, according to Reporters Without Borders. This ranking places Japan above Lesotho and below El Salvador. The Shinzo Abe administration and other government officials are often at odds with press coverage that is critical of the government, reinforced by no public debate on the 2013 state secrets protection law and a unilateral cabinet decision in 2014 to change the pacifist nature of the Constitution of Japan. This chapter will explore the press and politics environment of modern Japan, specifically NHK’s role as an enabler network to the needs and whims of the government. Finally, it will underscore the challenges faced by the Abe administration’s global nation branding efforts against the backdrop of international attention and criticism of Japan’s press-government relations.

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ajjms/2/0/2_2.0_15/_article/-char/ja

Article

YUAN MENG

YUAN MENG

Ewha Womans University

Student

Graduate School of Communication & Media
Ewha Womans University (South Korea)

Background

Received Bachelor Degree at Beijing International Studies University in 2015, and received Master Degree at Ewha Womans University in 2018.

Contact

E-mail: yuanmeng0811@gmail.com

Sae Kyung Yu

Sae Kyung Yu

Ewha Womans University

Sae Kyung Yu is a professor of the school of Communication & Media at Ewha Womans University (South Korea).

Background

She received her Master and Ph.D degree at the university of Texas at Austin in 1985 & 1990. Worked as a senior researcher at Seoul Broadcasting Station (SBS) in Korea from 1990 to 1995. Her primary teaching are ‘Global Communication’, ‘Media Economics’ and ‘Visual Media Management’. Her main research interests are ‘Global Media Culture and its identity’.

Achievements
  1. ’The Effect of Short Video Uses on Viewing Behaviors’
    Journal of Korean Broadcasting and Telecommunication Studies, 32(4), 2018, 7, pp65-102
  2. ‘A Study on the Relationship between the Evaluation of Morality on the Korean Drama Characters and the Drama Enjoyment and Quality Evaluation by Foreign Audience’,
    The Journal of Korea Contents Association 17(5), 2017, 5, pp357-365
  3. ‘An analysis of the news coverage of the Korean Wave: With Special references to Chinese and Japanese Newspapers’, The Journal of Communication Research, 50, 2013, pp121-156

Uses and Satisfaction Afforded by Japanese Animation to Chinese Audiences

Abstract

This study analyzed Chinese audiences’ motivations for viewing Japanese animation and the satisfaction they experienced after the viewing experience. It also examines the influence of cultural proximity and genre familiarity on viewing motivation and satisfaction. A hundred and sixty—two individuals who lived in China and actively watched Japanese animation were sampled. The results of the factor analysis showed that cultural proximity to Japan comprised three factors, including “fondness for Japan”, “fondness for Japanese lifestyle”, and “in favor of Japanese values”. Genre familiarity with Japanese animation comprised two factors: “familiarity with Japanese animation themes” and "familiarity with Japanese animation style”. Four motives for watching Japanese animation were “in order to discover something”, “customary pastimes”, “interest in the content of Japanese animation” and “desire for interpersonal interaction”. Two positive outcomes of watching Japanese animation were “deriving satisfaction from their enjoyment of it” and “acquiring a better understanding of Japanese culture”.

The results also showed that cultural proximity with Japan and genre familiarity with Japanese animation largely influenced diverse viewing motivations and different satisfaction levels. This study also found that the motivation to Japanese animation was related to the satisfaction felt after the viewing experience. To summarize, this study can supply basic but significant insights into, and thus enhance our understanding of the popularity of Japanese animation in China.

Key words: cultural proximity, genre familiarity, viewing motivation, satisfaction, Japanese animation

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ajjms/2/0/2_2.0_28/_article/-char/ja

Article

YAMAGUCHI Hitoshi

YAMAGUCHI Hitoshi

Teikyo University (Japan)

Associate Professor

Department of Sociology
Faculty of Liberal Arts
Teikyo University (Japan)

Background

I worked as a researcher at two research institutes from 2006 to 2010, and became a faculty member at Teikyo University in 2010. I received my master’s degree in Law from Keio University in 2003, and my PhD in Law, also from Keio University, in 2012.

Achievements
  1. “3.11-Go no Genshiryoku Seisaku ni Kansuru Seronchosa, Seronchosa Hodou”, In Yamakoshi, S. (Ed.) Sengo Nihon no Media to Gensiryoku Mondai. 203-237, Kyoto: Minervashobo. [Opinion Poll and Opinion Poll Coverage about Nuclear Policy after 3.11 in Japanese Media post World War II and Nuclear Energy Issues].
  2. Media ga Tukuru Genjitsu, Media wo Meguru Genjistu, Tokyo: Keiso Shobo.[Reality Constructed by Media, Reality about Media]
Contact

E-mail: h-yama@main.teikyo-u.ac.jp

Comments

I am interested in a social constructionist approach to journalism and public opinion. Through analyzing Japanese cases, I would like to construct theories about journalism.

Public Opinion That Cannot be “Constructed”

Abstract

In today's democratic society, public opinion is recognized as an "object of worship." Political elites such as politicians and bureaucrats want to grasp the trends of public opinion, and will sometimes try to control it. Meanwhile, the (mass) media conducts public opinion polls, interprets them, and reports both their results and interpretation. The mass media has become an influential actor in the political process.

In this paper, I will examine the concept of public opinion from a constructionist perspective. I present the view that public opinion is constructed by public opinion polls and their reports. These perspectives may not be new, but I would like to ask whether mass media can construct public opinion exclusively in the modern media environment.

Based on this question, we will analyze the public opinion reports on the 48th House of Representatives election in 2017. The Asahi Shimbun and other mass media outlets questioned the election’s legitimacy; they questioned whether the election results should be taken as public opinion and they presented "real public opinion" through their own opinion polls and critically commented on the election results.

However, these newspaper’ activities were criticized on the Internet. From a constructionist perspective, opinion has often been criticized as being constructed exclusively and predominantly by mass media. However, the opposite is evident in this case. Should we not consider that constructing public opinion will be increasingly difficult in the coming years?

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ajjms/2/0/2_2.0_44/_article/-char/ja

Article

JIANG Hui

JIANG Hui

Sun Yat-Sen University (China)

Associate Professor

School of Foreign Language
Sun Yat-Sen University (China)
Ph. D (Socio-information and communication studies, The University of Tokyo)

Background

Earned Master and Doctor of Socio-information and communication studies at Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Information Studies of the University of Tokyo. Worked at Sun Yat-Sen University in China from 2017.

Achievements
  1. A Study on Information Behavior of Urban Residents in China: Focusing on the relationship between media usage and lifestyle consciousness, Journal of International Affairs, No.153, 2019, pp. 19-43.
  2. Rethinking the Chinese's Affection towards Japan: Several Verification of Age and Regional Differences, Chinese Dream and China-Japan Relations, Northeast Asia Research Institute of J.F. Oberlin University, Japan, 2016.
  3. The Current Situation of Chinese People's Foreign Understanding: Focus on Japan's Location by Comparing the Impressions of Eight Countries, Verification after 100 years: Chinese students studying in Japan and their views on Japan, Sanwa publishing, Japan, 2015.
  4. The Formation of Chinese Image of Japan: The Background and Transition of Its Structuralization (Tyugokujin no Nihon-image no Keisei Katei: Sono Kozoka no Haikei to Hensen), Northeast Asia Research Institute of J.F. Oberlin University, Japan, 2014.
Contact

E-mail: jianghui6@mail.sysu.edu.cn

A Study of the Information Behavior of Chinese Youth,
Focusing on the Relevance between Media Access and Status Quo Evaluation

Abstract

This study focuses on Chinese young people and examines their information behavior and its effects. This study is based on the results of a questionnaire survey conducted by several universities in seven regions of mainland China in 2012 . Following an examination of the status of media use and the results of “Lifestyle-value Test” and analyzing the correlation between the two, the study further explores the effects of daily media use on the international orientation, the evaluation of the government, and the life satisfaction of young Chinese.

The results revealed that Chinese youth’s media use is mostly concentrated in online media. Specifically, the usage rates of instant messaging, social networking sites (SNS), and video sites were significantly higher than those of other media. The use of traditional paper media, such as newspapers and magazines, and broadcasting was relatively low. There was no significant difference in daily media usage rates between regions. In contrast, the difference between men and women was relatively significant. Additionally, a strong association was found between the use of SNS, overseas media and international orientation, and evaluation of the government, but there was a lack of consistency in the direction of relevance to life satisfaction.

Although it cannot be established that media use has led to the formation of a specific consciousness, it can be inferred as a means of promoting the original consciousness. Media use promoted the manifestation of the youth’s attitudes and created a phenomenon in which pluralistic opinions coexist.

Keywords: Information Behavior, Chinese Youth, Internet, Status Quo Evaluation

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ajjms/2/0/2_2.0_57/_article/-char/ja

Article

Song Chen

Song Chen

Nudge Tank Co.,Ltd (Japan)

CEO
Nudge Tank Co.,Ltd (Japan)
Background

Ph.D. Candidate at the University of Tokyo, GSII (Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies).
Earned masters at the University of Tokyo, GSII(Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies)in 2010. Enrolled as Ph.D. program student at Graduate School of GSII, the University of Tokyo from 2010 to 2015, majoring in Political Communication.

Achievements

“Who Wished to Participate in Anti-Japanese Demonstrations in China?:A Citizens' Attitude Survey Immediately Prior to the 2012 Anti-Japanese Demonstrations”, No.61(2), 2015,Asian Studies, pp. 40-54.

Contact

E-mail: chinsu@nudge-tank.com

When Did Public Opinion on the Senkaku/Diaoyu Island Issue
Begin Forming in China?

Abstract

Since 2010, the confrontation over the Senkaku Diaoyu Islands (S/D issue) dispute has greatly worsened Japan-China relations. Under these circumstances, public opinion has exerted a great influence on the progress over this issue by exerting pressure on the home governments. Preceding a discussion on the public opinion about the S/D issue, the first question that should be answered is when and how such public opinion began to be formed. Therefore, in the present study, I would like to provide answers about the formation process of the public opinion about the S/D issue in Chinese society.

Although previous studied offered some clues for discovering the answer to this question, identifying an exact time for when the public opinion was formed is overlooked.. In light of the importance of the S/D issue for Japan-China relations and in East Asia in general, a definite understanding of this issue will have important significance in various aspects. Therefore, in the present study, I would like to explore the answer using empirical analysis and literature survey based on the theory of political communication.According to the results of the analysis, this issue was widely reported for the first time by the Chinese media in the 1970s. However, this issue began to become widely known among the Chinese general people from 1990 onwards. Among various factors, one factor leading to the formation of public opinion is noteworthy. It was a change in the media environment, in particular the appearance of television.

Keywords: Public Opinion,Consciousness,Senkaku/Diaoyu Island Issue,Media, Television

https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ajjms/2/0/2_2.0_74/_article/-char/ja

Article